7th of the 1st month 2020/2021.
Each year, as we draw closer to the joy and excitement of guarding to keep the Appointed Times of יהוה, that are in the 1st month of the year, we do find that there are often various debates that arise regarding to the timing of events.
More specifically, there are divided views on when the Pěsaḥ (Passover) Meal is to be eaten.
Is it on the evening of the 14th or the evening of the 15th?
I am once again sending out this message, as I did a couple of years ago, and therefore, in this brief article I want to present to you the clear Scriptural instructions regarding the observance of Pěsaḥ and Matzot (Unleavened Bread), in terms of when we are to eat the Pěsaḥ Meal..
We firmly believe that the Pěsaḥ Meal is to be eaten on the evening of the 15th of the 1st month, in order to properly observe the clear pattern of Scripture that was given to us to follow.
While Scripture is very clear on the timing of the Appointed Times of יהוה, we do take note that some have veered away from the pattern of the Word, by misinterpreting or misunderstanding that which Messiah did with His taught ones on the night He was arrested.
Messiah had a supper, which is often referred to by many as the ‘last supper’, with His taught ones on the evening of the 14th of the 1st month and, after this meal, He instituted a new instruction of what was to be observed at the Pěsaḥ meal from that time onwards – an instruction that He gave His taught ones on the night that He would be betrayed and led to the slaughter place to be slain the next day (which was still the 14th), being the Lamb that takes away the sin of the world – the Bread of Life that was broken for us!.
Before taking a closer look at the account that we have in the Renewed Writings (N.T.), regarding the meal that Messiah had with His taught ones and what we are able to learn from this, I think that it is best that we understand the clear instructions that are given, regarding the keeping of this Feast of Pěsaḥ and Matzot..
Wayyiqra/Leviticus 23:5-6 “In the first new moon, on the fourteenth day of the new moon, between the evenings, is the Pěsaḥ to יהוה. ‘And on the fifteenth day of this new moon is the Festival of Matzot to יהוה – seven days you eat unleavened bread.”
From this Chapter 23 of Wayyiqra/Leviticus, which sets forth very clearly for us the ‘Sabbaths’ and ‘Appointed Times’ of יהוה, we take note of the clear ordering of events, as seen in the above two verses, regarding Pěsaḥ and Matzot..
Let us take a look at this first statement and instruction that is being given to us here:
One the fourteenth day of the new moon, between the evenings, is the Pěsaḥ to יהוה.
The Hebrew word that is translated as ‘Pěsaḥ/Passover’ is פֶּסַח Pěsaḥ – Strong’s H6453 which comes from the root verb פָּסַח pasaḥ – Strong’s H6452 which means, ‘to pass or spring over’.
We are told that on the 14th of the 1st month, between the evenings, it is the Pěsaḥ to יהוה..
The phrase that is translated as ‘between the evenings’ is written in the Hebrew as follows:
בֵּ֣ין הָעַרְבָּ֑יִם – beyn ha’arbbayim
This phrase is constructed from the following root words:
1) בַּיִן bayin – Strong’s H996 which is a preposition that means, ‘an interval, space between, out of, among, in the midst of’ and is understood, in this context, to define a period of time between two points, namely: the evenings!
2) עֶרֶב ereḇ – Strong’s H6153 which means ‘dusk, evening, night’ and comes from the primitive root עָרַב araḇ – Strong’s H6150 which means, ‘to grow or become dark, to become evening, turns to gloom’.
The Hebrew term עַרְבָּ֑יִם – arbbayim is a noun, common dual absolute of the word עֶרֶב ereḇ – Strong’s H6153, giving us a clear indication of the period between 2 separate evenings, when it begins to grow or become dark.
The use of the letter הָ – ‘hey’, that is transliterated as ‘ha’, is used as an article, in order to define the period of ‘between’ – i.e. – between THE two evenings, or better understood as ‘between the sunsets’!.
This means that the 14th of the 1st month – the Pěsaḥ/Passover to יהוה – is from the sunset of the 13th to sunset of the 14th, encompassing the full day period of the 14th from sunset to sunset!
At sunset of the 13th, the 14th day begins and at sunset at the end of the 14th day, the 15th day begins..
From its root, the Hebrew word עֶרֶב ereḇ – Strong’s H6153 carries the idea of ‘the time of day when it is becoming, or growing, dark (sunset/dusk)’.
So, it is done between the time that we can first notice the decline of daylight and the time that daylight transitions into night, at sunset and so, ‘between the evenings’ can be better translated as ‘between the sunsets’, which is a wonderful proof text for us, as to the beginning and the end of a day – which make is clear that a day is from sunset to sunset.
A mentioned, sunset of the 13th day, which would begin the 14th day, to sunset on the 14th day, which would begin the 15th!
Here the Pěsaḥ is slaughtered, as the 14th of the 1st month is fading into the 15th.
By the time of the second Temple, it was offered between the first and second evening oblation, which translates to the ninth hour (3:00 p.m.) on the 14th, which is exactly when יהושע was slain on Passover..
Why the 14th?
The way to write the number 14 in Hebrew is as follows: יד – with the letters י ‘yod’ having the numerical value of 10 (10th letter of the Hebrew Alphabet) and the letter ד dalet having the numerical value of 4 (4th letter of the Hebrew alphabet); which, when written, also spells out for us the Hebrew for ‘hand’, which is יָד yaḏ – Strong’s H3027.
This, in itself, is a powerful picture of the work of Messiah, as יהוה had said He would stretch out His Hand over Mitsrayim:
Shemoth/Exodus3:20 “And I shall stretch out My hand and smite Mitsrayim with all My wonders which I shall do in its midst. And after that he shall let you go.”
And He would also lay His Hand on Mitsrayim:
Shemoth/Exodus 7:4 “And Pharaoh is not going to listen to you, and I shall lay My hand on Mitsrayim, and bring My divisions and My people, the children of Yisra’ĕl, out of the land of Mitsrayim by great judgments.”
The Pěsaḥ/Passover lamb was therefore to be kept until the fullness of יהוה’s hand would come. יהושע, therefore, is the One who strikes Mitsrayim down, defeating enslavement to sin and death, in His own blood – for He is The Revealed Hand of יהוה and He is The Pěsaḥ/Passover Lamb, that would be slain on the 14th of the 1st month!.
While many have argued that the phrase ‘between the evenings’ relates only to a short period between dusk and darkness, we are given another clear example, in Scripture, that highlights for us a clear proof that this term can, and does, give reference to a full day, which goes from ‘sunset to sunset’.
The example I want to mention, is seen in regards to the Day of Yom Kippur (The Day of Atonement), where we are given the following instruction:
Wayyiqra/Leviticus 23:32 “It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the new moon at evening, from evening to evening, you observe your Sabbath.” .
We are also clearly told that Yom Kippur is on the 10th of the 7th month:
Wayyiqra/Leviticus 23:27 “On the tenth day of this seventh new moon is Yom haKippurim. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to יהוה.”.
Yom Kippur is The Sabbath of Sabbaths and in order to make it very clear, Mosheh writes that on the 9th day of the 7th month ‘at evening’, you start your Sabbath and observe it from ‘evening to evening’..
In the Hebrew text, the phrase, ‘at evening, from evening to evening, is written as follows:.
בָּעֶ֔רֶב מֵעֶ֣רֶב עַד־עֶ֔רֶב – ba’ereḇ meyereḇ aḏ-ereḇ .
In this phrase, we see the root word עֶרֶב ereḇ – Strong’s H6153 being used 3 times, in order to make sure that no mistake is being made, as to when Yom Kippur was to be observed!.
The use of the letter בָּ – beyt, at the start of this phrase, is done as a preposition, which carries the meaning of, ‘at, in’, signifying the starting point.
The use of the letter מֵ – mem, at the beginning of the second ‘evening’, is another preposition which comes from the root word מִן min – Strong’s H4480 which renders the meaning, ‘from, out of, by, by reason of, as a result of, according to’ and denotes the evening from which the day to be observed begins.
Before the 3rd ‘evening’, we see the preposition עַד aḏ – Strong’s H5704 which means, ‘as long, even until, as far as, perpetuity, continually, forever’; highlighting for us the ending point of the day to be observed!
On the 9th day, at evening, which would begin the 10th day, you observe Yom Kippur – from evening to evening!!
That is, from the sunset of the 9th until the sunset of the 10th.
The reason for me emphasising this, is to show that a day’s starting and ending points, happen between two evenings, and therefore, we are able to recognise that the use of a dual absolute of עֶרֶב ereḇ – Strong’s H6153, in the instruction regarding Pěsaḥ, is that the Pěsaḥ to יהוה, is from the sunset of the 13th to the sunset of the 14th!
In the second year, after coming out from Mitsrayim, we are told that they performed the Pěsaḥ on the 14th, between the evenings:
Bemiḏbar/Numbers 9:2-3 “Now, let the children of Yisra’ěl perform the Pěsaḥ at its appointed time. 3 “On the fourteenth day of this new moon, between the evenings, perform it at its appointed time. According to all its laws and right-rulings you perform it.” .
The law and right-rulings of performing the Pěsaḥ were clearly laid out in Shemoth/Exodus 12, which you can take a closer look at, by going through our Torah commentary notes on this.
For the purposes of this article I simply want to highlight what was done on the 14th of the 1st month and that which was commanded to be performed.
It was on the 14th of the 1st month – the Pěsaḥ to יהוה – that the lamb was to be slain, between the evenings, and the blood was to be applied to the doorposts, and the meat was to be roasted in fire and eaten that night – which night, is the question that many wrestle with?
Well, it should be pretty clear – the night after the Pěsaḥ!!!
The Pěsaḥ was prepared and performed on the 14th, between the evenings, and after the period between the evenings of the 14th, the lamb was to be eaten with Unleavened Bread and bitter herbs, and this night would become a night of watches for all generations, for it was on this night – the night of the 15th that Yisra’ĕl was delivered from Mitsrayim!.
The law of the Pěsaḥ/Passover is clear – no stranger may eat of it, as only those who were circumcised may eat of it!
Please see our Torah commentary notes on this, which highlights that it is by the blood of Messiah that we, who were once strangers and foreigners to the covenants of promise, are brought near, by His Blood, through our immersion in Him, which is our circumcision, and are then grafted into these covenants and are no longer strangers but sons and daughters!!!
Simply put, only those who have been immersed in Messiah may eat of the Pěsaḥ and perform it!.
The 15th of the 1st month marks for us, not only when we eat the Pěsaḥ Meal, but also the beginning of the Feast of Matzot (Unleavened Bread), and it is during this week that we eat bread without leaven and there is to be no leaven found within our borders, before the feast begins, and is a picture of getting rid of sin, which is often pictured in Scripture as leaven..
The debate over when the Pěsaḥ Meal is eaten, arises due to various interpretations of what took place with our Master and His taught ones, on the night He was delivered up, which was on the evening of the 14th of the 1st month and the meal that He had with them that night, has caused many to be swayed, to veer away from the clear pattern of Scripture that we are commanded to remember and perform.
I would therefore, like to take a closer look at the events that took place, on the night and day of the 14th of the 1st month, when our Master had a supper with His taught ones and was then delivered up and sentenced to death on a stake..
As we take a closer look, I will not necessarily be looking at various verses, in a chronological order as found in Scripture, but simply highlight various verses, that will help us determine and decipher the correct application of these events, in order to guard the clear pattern that is given to us through The Torah, bearing in mind that Mosheh was commanded to do according to the pattern that he was shown, which further emphasises how we cannot deviate from the pattern that is laid forth for us, through the fixed Appointed Times of Elohim..
Yoḥanan/John 13:1 “And before the Festival of the Pěsaḥ, יהושע knowing that His hour had come that He should move out of this world unto the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.”
The reason for me making mention of this verse, is to highlight something very important for us to recognise, in order to understand that which follows.
As you will notice, this chapter begins with the phrase,
‘And before the Festival of the Pěsaḥ…”
The Greek word that is translated here as ‘before’ comes from the root word πρό pro – Strong’s G4253 which is used as preposition which means, ‘before, above, ahead, prior’.
Yoḥanan is highlighting for us a key marker, in terms of the timing of the beginning of this chapter, which can help us understand the next verse, which states the following:
Yoḥanan/John 13:2 “And supper taking place, the devil having already put it into the heart of Yehuḏah from Qerioth, son of Shim‛on, to deliver Him up”.
Can you see what is being told here?
And supper taking place!!!
Before the Festival of the Pěsaḥ, when Messiah knew that His hour had now come, that He should be given up!
This was the supper that Messiah had with His taught ones, the night before He was crucified.
This was His ‘last supper’ with His taught ones and there is NO Scriptural proof that this supper was the Pěsaḥ Meal!
In fact, Yoḥanan clearly records this as being before the Festival of the Pěsaḥ!.
Messiah rose up from this supper and washed His taught one’s feet.
As one continues to read this chapter, we are told in verses 28-30 that Yehuḏah had left the room after Messiah told him to go and do what he was about to do very quickly!
The other taught ones did not know what Messiah was actually saying and thought that because Yehuḏah held the money purse, that he was going to buy whatever was still needed for the Festival. This, in itself, highlights for us that this was the preparation day and NOT the beginning of Matzot and therefore, was not a Pěsaḥ Meal, but simply just a meal that Messiah had with His taught ones.
It certainly was a very important evening and meal that He had with them, but it was not the Pěsaḥ meal, for that is only eaten at the end of preparation day, once the lambs were slaughtered and roasted in fire, during the 14th, in order for the meal to be eaten on the 15th, with unleavened Bread!.
It was on this night of the 14th of the 1st month, that Messiah was delivered up and Kěpha had denied Him 3 times before the cock would crow, in the early morning (still the 14th day).
Yoḥanan/John 18:27-28 “Then Kěpha again denied it, and immediately a cock crowed. 28 Then they led יהושע from Qayapha to the palace, and it was early. And they themselves did not go into the palace, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Pěsaḥ.”.
What we are able to see, from the words of Yoḥanan, is that while they led Messiah to the palace, they themselves did not want to go in, lest they should be defiled and not be able to eat the Pěsaḥ!!!
If the Pěsaḥ Meal was to be eaten on the evening of the 14th, then why would this statement be made?
Because it was clear knowledge to all, that the Pěsaḥ is eaten on the evening of the 15th, after the sunset, which ends the 14th day..
In order to highlight that this indeed was the preparation day, we are told in:
Yoḥanan/John 19:13-14 “Therefore, when Pilate heard these words, he brought יהושע out and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. 14 And it was the Preparation Day of the Pěsaḥ week, and about the sixth hour. And he said to the Yehuḏim, “See your Sovereign!”
This was the morning after Messiah had a supper with His taught ones and Yoḥanan is clearly telling us that this was the Preparation of the Pěsaḥ.
Pilate sat in the judgement seat on the day of preparation of the Pěsaḥ!.
The Greek word that is translated here as ‘preparation’ is παρασκευή paraskeuē – Strong’s G3904 which means, ‘preparation, preparation day’, and is used 6 times in the Renewed Writings, with each time, it is being used for the day of preparation, for both the Sabbath and the Pěsaḥ!.
The idea of a preparation for the Pěsaḥ was understood as referring to the preparation for the Passover Meal and the 7 days of Matzot, collectively!
As we continue in this chapter, we again see that this day that Messiah was crucified, being the 14th of the 1st month, was the preparation for Matzot:
Yoḥanan/John 19:31 “Therefore, since it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the stake on the Sabbath – for that Sabbath was a high one – the Yehuḏim asked Pilate to have their legs broken, and that they be taken away.” .
When Messiah had told Kěpha and Yoḥanan to go and prepare for the Pěsaḥ, He was referring collectively to the entire Feast of Matzot and therefore, they would need to make sure that they had prepared for the 7 days of the Feast, which actually begins with a preparation day, which is the 14th day of the 1st month and is called Passover and the day in which complete preparation for the Feast of Matzot is done, so that the Pěsaḥ Meal (which was prepared during the 14th) could be eaten after sunset, which began the 15th and the Feast of Matzot!
Nowhere in Scripture do we see the meal that Messiah and His taught ones ate, on the evening of the 14th, being called a Pěsaḥ Meal!
Yes, they were told to go and prepare for the Pěsaḥ, that they may eat, yet the meal that they had, as a last supper with Messiah, was never referred to as a Pěsaḥ Meal, and has erroneously been assumed as such, by many who fail to recognise the clear pattern that is given to us in Scripture..
What is also worth taking note of, is that the bread that Messiah broke at this meal, was not specifically referred to as being unleavened bread, which makes a clear distinction in recognising that this could not be the Pěsaḥ meal that He had with them!
Luqas/Luke 22:19 “And taking bread, giving thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of Me.”
The Greek word that is used for the bread that the Master broke, is the word ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 which means, ‘bread, showbread, loaves, meal’, and is the word that is generally used for most breads.
If this be the case, then why am I making mention of this?
In the Greek text, we take note of the word that is specifically used to refer to unleavened bread, which is the word ἄζυμος azumos – Strong’s G106 which means, ‘unleavened, unleavened bread, free from yeast or leaven’ and is used to describe the unleavened bread that is to be eaten during the Feast of Matzot, including the Pěsaḥ Meal, which begins Matzot!
This word is used 9 times, with direct reference to Unleavened Bread and this word is used in the LXX (Greek translation of the Tanak – O.T.) 50 times, in direct reference to unleavened bread!
It comes from the root words:
1) α alpha – Strong’s G1 – which is the first letter of the Greek alphabet, which is used as a negative participle and
2) ζύμη zumē – Strong’s G2219 which means, ‘leaven’, and is the Greek word used in the LXX (Septuagint – Greek translation of the Tanak) as the equivalent to the Hebrew word שְׂאֹר se’or – Strong’s H7603 which means, ‘leaven, swelling by fermentation’..
In terms of the Feast of Pěsaḥ and Matzot we see the following:
Shemoth/Exodus 12:8 “And they shall eat the flesh on that night, roasted in fire – with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.”
In the Greek text of this verse, we take note that the word ἄζυμος azumos – Strong’s G106 is used and not ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740..
We again see the same, in that which follows in this chapter on Pěsaḥ and Matzot:
Shemoth/Exodus 12:15 “Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. Indeed on the first day you cause leaven to cease from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that being shall be cut off from Yisra’ěl.”
Shemoth/Exodus 12:18 “In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the new moon, in the evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the new moon in the evening.”
The command given here is very clear – from the 14th day, in the evening, which would begin the 15th day and the Feast of Matzot, Unleavened Bread is to be eaten for 7 days, until the 21st day at evening, when the Feast of Matzot ends!.
What we take note of, is that the Greek word ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 is not used, in reference to the bread that is to be eaten during Pěsaḥ and Matzot.
Both words – ἄζυμος azumos – Strong’s G106 (unleavened) and ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 (bread) are used together in the LXX, when referring to unleavened bread that is brought as offerings, yet we do not see the use of ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 being used in the instructions for Pěsaḥ and Matzot, which highlights for me the clear understanding that the Greek text shows us, in identifying the clear difference of what bread is to be eaten at the Pěsaḥ Meal, and therefore, shows us that Messiah did not eat a Pěsaḥ Meal on the evening of the 14th with His taught ones!
For the Pěsaḥ Meal, unleavened bread is commanded to be eaten – that is ἄζυμος azumos – Strong’s G106 and not ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 which is what Messiah broke!.
Once again, some might think that I am being pedantic on this issue, yet we do take note, as I have mentioned, that the Greek word ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 is and can be used for various kinds of bread, and is even used in reference to unleavened bread when used along with ἄζυμος azumos – Strong’s G106, yet with regards to Pěsaḥ, there is a clear distinction being made where ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 is purposefully not used, in order to identify the clear command given in regards to what must be eaten for Pěsaḥ and Matzot!
These two words are not used together at all in the Renewed Writings!!!
I do hope that the point I am presenting is made clear – It is very possible that Messiah did not break unleavened bread at the last supper that He had with His taught ones and therefore could not be a Pěsaḥ meal!
This word ἄρτος artos – Strong’s G740 is certainly used for the Bread that is brought on Shaḇuoth and waved as a wave offering, for it has leaven in it and represents that Bread that has been permeated with the good leaven of the Kingdom!
What Messiah was doing at this ‘last supper’ or meal, was instituting a clear instruction that would be followed from that time onwards, with the Pěsaḥ Meal, and He simply used the bread, as an example of it being His Body.
He knew no sin and therefore, His body can represent that which is waved at Shaḇuoth, yet He took all our sin upon Himself, in order to be broken for us, and when we partake of the bread at the Pěsaḥ Meal, we do not have leavened Bread but unleavened Bread, symbolizing How He, the Bread of Life, came to die and be broken for us, so that, in Him, we will not sin!.
Those who partake in a Passover Meal at the beginning of the 14th, have not yet cleaned out the leaven from their homes, so to speak, and have therefore, not prepared as commanded.
When Messiah broke the bread and took the cup, He told His taught ones to:
“Do this in remembrance of Me”
Luqas/Luke 22:19-20 “And taking bread, giving thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of Me.” 20 Likewise the cup also, after supper, saying, “This cup is the renewed covenant in My blood which is shed for you.”
The Greek word that is translated as ‘remembrance’ comes from the root word ἀνάμνησις anamnesis – Strong’s G364 which means, ‘remembrance, reminder, recall’.
This was a new instruction that our Master and Elohim gave, highlighting the prophetic fulfillment of Messiah’s work of deliverance, in being the Passover Lamb that takes away the sin of the world.
An instruction/ordinance that would now be incorporated into the Pěsaḥ Meal, that would bring to remembrance the body and blood of Messiah..
From that time onwards, this ordinance would now form part of the Pěsaḥ Meal, done on the evening of the 15th of the 1st month, in order to symbolically remember what took place on the 14th, when His body was broken and His Blood was shed, for our sins – fulfilling the requirements of the Pěsaḥ Lamb that was to be slaughtered on the 14th of the 1st month!.
Sha’ul quotes Messiah in:
Qorintiyim Aleph/1 Corinthians 11:23-26 “For I received from the Master that which I also delivered to you: that the Master יהושע in the night in which He was delivered up took bread, 24 and having given thanks, He broke it and said, “Take, eat, this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 25 In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the renewed covenant in My blood. As often as you drink it, do this in remembrance of Me.” 26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the death of the Master until He comes.”
Messiah gave this instruction to us all, on the night that He was delivered up and this was clearly an instruction that would be followed at future Pěsaḥ Meals, for Sha’ul makes it clear to us that as often as we do this (on Pěsaḥ) we proclaim the death of the Master until He comes..
I want to make it clear that this was not an instruction to do this whenever one feels like it and erroneously partake in what has become known as ‘communion’, but rather, this ordinance forms part of the Pěsaḥ Meal, wherein we remember and proclaim the death of the Master until He comes!
We proclaim His death once a year, in remembrance of Him dying for our sins, done at the Pěsaḥ Meal. To do this at the beginning of the 14th would, symbolically, not be in line with the proper remembrance and proclamation of the timing of the Master’s death, for it was only late in the 14th that He gave up His breath and was taken down from the stake, just before sunset of the 14th and buried.
To partake of the bread and cup on the evening of the 14th would, symbolically, be too early and not fit the clear pattern of that which is to be remembered – the Blood of the Lamb!
And to do so on the 14th would, in type, be symbolically a picture of looking forward and not remembering!
Shemoth/Exodus 12:13-15 “And the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I shall pass over you, and let the plague not come on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Mitsrayim. 14 ‘And this day shall become to you a remembrance. And you shall celebrate it as a festival to יהוה throughout your generations – celebrate it as a festival, an everlasting law. 15 ‘Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. Indeed on the first day you cause leaven to cease from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that being shall be cut off from Yisra’ěl.”.
The taught ones of Messiah would certainly have done the Pěsaḥ Meal the next night, after His death, in complete obedience to the clear instructions and commands regarding this Feast, and now, would do so with the new ordinance of the Bread and Cup, being done in remembrance of what had just taken place, as they would look back, in remembrance, of what had just taken place a few hours earlier!
Guarding to keep this ordinance, of partaking in the Bread and Cup of the Master on the Pěsaḥ Meal on the 15th of the 1st month, correctly follows the clear pattern of observing the Feast, as commanded, and retain the clear pattern of remembrance and the proclaiming of His death, on the night that the Pěsaḥ Lamb is eaten, remembering that it was killed on the 14th – the preparation day – highlighting how Messiah was the prepared body that would come and take away the sins of the world – for He is the Bread of Life – and it is only by His Blood, and not the blood of bulls and goats, that sins can be cleansed!
Iḇ’rim/Hebrews 10:5 “Therefore, coming into the world, He says, “Slaughtering and meal offering You did not desire, but a body You have prepared for Me.”.
What we need to recognise and acknowledge, is that Messiah is the same yesterday, today and forever and He did not change the timing of the Appointed Times!
He simply instituted a new ordinance that would be done, as a remembrance of His body that had been prepared for us to be cleansed by His Shed Blood – which is done at the Master’s Table, which is the Pěsaḥ Meal that is celebrated in remembrance of our Master and Elohim and His perfect work of deliverance, that He has brought to us in His Own Blood!.
The Master told Kěpha and Yoḥanan to go and prepare the Pěsaḥ, which, as mentioned, would collectively include the preparations for Matzot, and having gone and begun preparations, we take note of the words of our Master in:
Luqas/Luke 22:15-18 “And He said to them, “With desire I have desired to eat this Pěsaḥ with you before My suffering, 16 for I say to you, I shall certainly not eat of it again until it is filled in the reign of Elohim.” 17 And taking the cup, giving thanks, He said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves, 18 for I say to you, I shall certainly not drink of the fruit of the vine until the reign of Elohim comes.” .
With desire I have desired to eat this Pěsaḥ with you before My suffering!
The Greek word that is used here for ‘desire’ comes from the root word ἐπιθυμία epithumia – Strong’s G1939 which means, ‘desire, passionate longing, lust, coveting, desires’ and this comes from the word ἐπιθυμέω epithumeō – Strong’s G1937 which means, ‘desire, covet, lust, seek that which is forbidden’, which is also used here and translated as ‘desired’.
Our Master certainly desired to eat the Pěsaḥ Meal that year with His taught ones, yet He would not, as He would be delivered up and be the Pěsaḥ Lamb, whose blood would covers and cleanses those who are in Him!
While earnestly desiring to eat this Pěsaḥ Meal, He said that He would not eat of it again until all is filled in the reign of Elohim! Why?
Because He was about to die and would therefore not eat it that year and would only eat of it again, when He comes in the fullness of His esteem!
What we must remember is that Messiah has, in previous years, eaten the Pěsaḥ Meal as required and while desiring to do so again, He made it clear to His taught ones that it was His time and that He would not partake of the Pěsaḥ Meal again until He comes to rule and reign.
This was a preparation meal, not a Pěsaḥ meal!
And one in which they had received a very clear instruction of what would be done, from that point onwards, at the Pěsaḥ meal!.
While there are many varying opinions and interpretations on these events, what we firmly believe, is that our Master came to fully proclaim and teach His clear pattern for us to follow and therefore, He did not change His Appointed Times, but rather , He came to fully explain and teach us how we are to guard to keep His Word and do so with much joy.
From the accounts that we have been given in Scripture, we can clearly see that the meal that the Master had on the night He was delivered up, that is on the 14th of the 1st month, was not the Pěsaḥ Meal, but was a very important preparation meal of instruction for what would follow!.
While there are also various debates that are presented by some, over whether the Pharisees and the Sadducees each held a different day for the Passover, based on various historical evidences, what we have simply done, is stick to the clear pattern given to us in Scripture, with the acknowledgment that we have sufficient evidence and instructions contained in Scripture, to not be swayed by various theories and traditions that had developed over time, but rather hold firm to that which the authoritive Word of Elohim teaches us in.
I have therefore chosen not to explore such theories, but have simply stuck to the pattern that we have clearly been given in Scripture, in order to make sure that we do not deviate from that which our Master and Elohim has clearly instructed us with..
Therefore, we conclude that, without any doubt, the Pěsaḥ/Passover Meal is to be eaten on the evening of the 15th of the 1st month, after a day of preparation for Passover and Matzot!
And it is at this meal that we are to partake of the Bread and the Cup of the Master, done in remembrance of His great love for us, in that He gave of Himself so that we may have life abundantly, in Him!
His Hand has worked redemption for us, so that we can be cleansed, set-apart and equipped to work out our deliverance with fear and trembling.
As you prepare for Pěsaḥ and Matzot may you be greatly enriched in the wonderful redeeming work of our Master and celebrate this Festival with complete joy..
In closing, I want to highlight the clear importance and significance of the 14th day of the 1st month, and the work that our Master did, in preparation for His called-out Bride, especially as we consider the number 14, as mentioned, being the numerical value of the root word for hand, יָד yaḏ – Strong’s H3027.
When looking at this root word יָד yaḏ – Strong’s H3027 in the ancient pictographic script, we are able to see a wonderful picture of the work that our Master has done for us, in order to provide us an entrance into His Reign.
In the ancient pictographic script, this root word יָד yaḏ – Strong’s H3027, is pictured as follows:
Yod – יָ
The ancient script has this letter as which is ‘an arm and hand’ and carries the meaning of ‘work, make, throw’, from the primary functions of the arm and hand, and it also represents worship or giving thanks in the extending of hands as a gesture of this.
The work of one’s hands is the basic meaning of this letter!.
Dalet – ד:
The ancient script has this letter as and is pictured as a ‘tent door’. It can also have the meaning of ‘a back and forth movement’, as one goes back and forth through a tent door, and so speaks of an access point. It can also carry the meaning of ‘dangle’ or hanging as the tent door would hang from the roof pole of the tent. It speaks a great deal, in terms of understanding the door of the tent of appointment as the only means of access. Messiah is The Door!.
When we look at this root word that gives us the meaning of ‘hand’ – יָד yaḏ – Strong’s H3027 which is a primitive root, which is translated as, ‘hand, command, authority, power, tenons, side’, and the primary meaning of this noun is, “the terminal part of the arm used to perform the functions of a man’s will”, and with its numerical value being 14, we are able to clearly see a powerful declaration of:
THE WORK OF THE DOOR!
The arm of יהוה has been revealed and by His Hand and outstretched Arm, He has shed His own Blood for us, and with Messiah being The Door for the Sheep, we are able to see how He Himself has covered us and given us access into His covenants of promise, where we find complete provision for us to work out our deliverance, with fear and trembling, and come to the Door and be properly prepared as a set-apart and chosen Bride that he has redeemed!.
The 14th day of the 1st month is a clear reminder of the preparation that our Master Himself did for us, and in doing so, He has given us the means for us to remember this Feast of Pěsaḥ and Matzot, by being properly prepared, by getting all the leaven out of our homes, by the end of the 14th Day, so that we can ‘enter in’ to His Appointed Time and partake of His Table as ones who have prepared as we should.
This article is a reminder of the significance of the 14th of the 1st and the acknowledgement of the need for us to follow the clear pattern in Scripture, as we guard to keep our Master’s Appointed Times and a reminder of how it is on the evening of the 15th day of the 1st month (at the end of the 14th) that we partake of the Pěsaḥ/Passover Meal and begin the Feast of Matzot.
This night of the 15th day of the 1st month is also a night of watches:
Shemoth/Exodus 12:41-42 “And it came to be at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, on that same day it came to be that all the divisions of יהוה went out from the land of Mitsrayim. 42 It is a night of watches unto יהוה for bringing them out of the land of Mitsrayim. This is that night of watches unto יהוה, for all the children of Yisra’ěl throughout their generations.”.
The Hebrew phrase that is translated here as ‘night of watches’ is לֵ֣יל שִׁמֻּרִ֥ים – leyl shimmeriym and comes from the root words:
1) לַיְלָה layelah – Strong’s H3915 which means, ‘night (as opposed to day)’, and is a period of time from the setting of the sun to its rising; and so, carries the focus of ‘lacking light’ and
2) שִׁמֻּר shimmur – Strong’s H8107 which means, ‘a watching, vigil, observe’ and comes from the root verb שׁמר shâmar – Strong’s H8104 which carries the meaning ‘to guard, observe, give heed, perform, keep watch, pay attention’, and the basic idea of the root of this word is ‘to exercise great care over’.
When one is ‘guarding’ something, being ‘awake and alert’ is imperative or else the risk of a theft or loss of possessions is high..
It is on this night that we ‘keep watch’ and observe a ‘night of watches’, as we enjoy a feast and stay awake, interceding for the Bride of Messiah and those still in bondage..
While the root verb שׁמר shâmar – Strong’s H8104 is identified as being used 468 times in various forms, we take note that it is written in the plural absolute form of שִׁמֻּרִ֥ים shimmeriym 24 times, and often gives reference to the watching that took place at the gates or the duty of attending to the evening ascending offerings, and is also used in:
Tehillah/Psalm 130:6 “My being looks to יהוה more than those watching for morning, watching for morning.”
Our ‘night of watches’ is truly a night of remembrance, of the deliverance of Yisra’ěl from Mitsrayim and is a reminder to us, to keep our eyes continually fixed upon our Master and Elohim!.
The night of the 15th of the 1st month is a night of watches and is a night where we get to partake of the Master’s table and partake in the Bread and Cup, as a remembrance of His death, that satisfied the punishment for our sins, in order that we can be a watchful Bride that has prepared herself..
This year, here at ATFOTC, we are not able to have a Pěsaḥ meal, together as a fellowship as we always do, due to our country being under a mandated lockdown until after Matzot. Each family will have the Pěsaḥ Meal at their own homes and we will ‘gather online’ for the Appointed Times during this Feast and guard the unity of the body, by the Spirit of our Master, as we continue to serve Him is perfection and Truth..
May you all have a great time of preparation leading up to this Feast of Passover and Unleavened Bread and be reminded of the great love of our Master, which should cause you to be urgent in your preparations and obedience to guarding His Word and His Appointed Times, according to His Word, through the clear pattern that He has shown to us.
יהוה bless you and guard you; יהוה make His face shine upon you and show favour to you; יהוה lift up His face upon you and give you Shalom!.